Hygiene Hypothesis References: Supporting Science

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1 Bach, J.F. (2002) The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 911–920

2 Sawczenko, A. et al. (2001) Prospective survey of childhood inflammatory bowel disease in the British Isles. Lancet 357, 1093–1094

3 Rook, G.A. et al. (2004) Mycobacteria and other environmental organisms as immunomodulators for immunoregulatory disorders. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 25, 237–255

4 Wildin, R.S. et al. (2002) Clinical and molecular features of the immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX) syndrome. J. Med. Genet. 39, 537–545

5 Akdis, M. et al. (2004) Immune responses in healthy and allergic individuals are characterized by a fine balance between allergen-specific T regulatory 1 and T helper 2 cells. J. Exp. Med. 199, 1567–1575

6 Viglietta, V. et al. (2004) Loss of functional suppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis.

J. Exp. Med. 199, 971–979

7 Kriegel, M.A. et al. (2004) Defective suppressor function of human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II. J. Exp. Med. 199, 1285–1291

8 Powrie, F. et al. (2003) Control of immune pathology by regulatory T cells. Novartis Found. Symp. 252, 92–98

9 Kraus, T.A. et al. (2004) Failure to induce oral tolerance to a soluble protein in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 126, 1771–1778

10 Babu, S. et al. (2006) Regulatory networks induced by live parasites impair both Th1 and Th2 pathways in patent lymphatic filariasis: implications for parasite persistence. J. Immunol. 176, 3248–3256

11 van der Kleij, D. et al. (2002) A novel host-parasite lipid crosstalk. Schistosomal lyso-phosphatidylserine activates Toll-like receptor 2 and affects immune polarization. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 48122–48129

12 Smits, H.H. et al. (2005) Selective probiotic bacteria induce IL-10- producing regulatory T cells in vitro by modulating dendritic cell function through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115, 1260–1267

13 van den Biggelaar, A.H. et al. (2000) Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. Lancet 356, 1723–1727

14 King, C.L. et al. (1993) Cytokine control of parasite-specific anergy in human lymphatic filariasis. Preferential induction of a regulatory T helper type 2 lymphocyte subset. J. Clin. Invest. 92, 1667–1673

15 Pasare, C. and Medzhitov, R. (2003) Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Science 299, 1033–1036

16 Zuany-Amorim, C. et al. (2002) Suppression of airway eosinophilia by killed Mycobacterium vaccae-induced allergen-specific regulatory T-cells. Nat. Med. 8, 625–629

17 Wilson, M.S. et al. (2005) Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells. J. Exp. Med. 202, 1199–1212

18 Ricklin-Gutzwiller, M.E. et al. (2007) Intradermal injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae in dogs with atopic dermatitis: a multicentre pilot study. Vet. Dermatol. 18, 87–93

19 Zaccone, P. et al. (2003) Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulate the activity of the innate immune response and prevent onset of type 1 diabetes. Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 1439–1449

20 Summers, R.W. et al. (2005) Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gut 54, 87–90

21 O’Brien, S.M. et al. (2004) Cytokines: abnormalities in major depression and implications for pharmacological treatment. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 19, 397–403

22 Schiepers, O.J. et al. (2005) Cytokines and major depression. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 29, 201–217

23 Capuron, L. and Miller, A.H. (2004) Cytokines and psychopathology: lessons from interferon-a. Biol. Psychiatry 56, 819–824

24 Maes, M. (1999) Major depression and activation of the inflammatory response system. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 461, 25–46

25 Penninx, B.W. et al. (2003) Inflammatory markers and depressed mood in older persons: results from the Health. Aging and Body Composition study. Biol. Psychiatry 54, 566–572

26 Musselman, D.L. et al. (2001) Higher than normal plasma interleukin-6 concentrations in cancer patients with depression: preliminary findings. Am. J. Psychiatry 158, 1252–1257

27 Raison, C.L. and Miller, A.H. (2003) Depression in cancer: new developments regarding diagnosis and treatment. Biol. Psychiatry 54, 283–294

28 Ferketich, A.K. et al. (2005) Depressive symptoms and inflammation among heart failure patients. Am. Heart J. 150, 132–136

29 Chapman, D.P. et al. (2005) The vital link between chronic disease and depressive disorders. Prev. Chronic Dis. 2, A14

30 Beuther, D.A. et al. (2006) Obesity and asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 174, 112–119

31 Maes, M. et al. (1999) Lower serum zinc in major depression in relation to changes in serum acute phase proteins. J. Affect. Disord. 56, 189–194